Tell me About Fred’s Fat Foot Again. Four Tips for Successful PA Lessons by Bruce Murray. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 66, No. 2. Studies have found that children who are taught phonemes and phonemic awareness have had more success learning how to decode over students who did not have that training. There are four elements for effective phonemic awareness lessons: teach a limited group of phonemes at a time; make each selected phoneme memorable; arrange phoneme finding practice so that children learn to detect the phoneme in spoken word contexts; and apply phoneme knowledge to alphabetic decoding. Teach how each phoneme feels when saying it, with stops or more subtle ones with no stops. Use silly sayings or words to help make a phoneme memorable such as a sound anology- a silly sneaky, slithering snake. Teaching the graphemes while teaching the phoneme give symbols and help students learn the letters. Teach some variable phonemes such as d or l in a variety of word contexts such as tongue twisters. Students can practice by writing with invented spellings and stretch the sounds out orally when writing words. Give students practice in listening for sounds in words. Use rhyming as a first step to teach letter and word patterns.