Changing Instruction to Increase Achievement for Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities by Shawnee Wakeman, Meagan Karvonen and Audra Ahumada. Teaching Exceptional Children, Vol 46, No. 2. The article is about a teacher who is trying to teach her students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities the concepts of adding fractions. Her students were not getting the concepts so she changed some of the strategies used. The amount of information given at one time was reduced and visuals were used as well as manipulatives to demonstrate fractions. Picture supports were used for teaching each step. Backward chaining may be needed until students get to the required step needed for forward chaining on information. The more abstract material will need breaking down steps individually. Interactive whiteboards and computer assisted instruction could also be used in addtion. Low tech devices such as magnetic fraction strips could be manipulated on a cookie sheet. When students have shown mastery of one step, attempts should be made to generalize that to the next step. Skills should be in different context and also be reviewed.